Congenital bilateral paralysis of the muscles which move the eyes in the horizontal plane and congenital bilateral paralysis of the muscles of the face occasionally occur together. This disabling congenital anomaly makes up a small group of congenital defects which probably is a step in the transition from certain forms of congenital absence of abduction and the congential ophthalmoplegias. It was first described by Albrecht von Graefe (1875), and later by Harlan (1881), Chisolm (1887), Möbius (1888) and Schapringer (1889). Each of these authors added slight variations to the original description. Heubner (1900) published the results of an anatomic examination of a patient who came to autopsy. There was hypoplasia of the brain stem in the area of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves. The anomaly is frequently spoken of as Möbius' syndrome, because of that author's exact and detailed descriptions and discussions of the disease in 1888 and 1892.
HICKS AM. CONGENITAL PARALYSIS OF LATERAL ROTATORS OF EYES WITH PARALYSIS OF MUSCLES OF FACE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1943;30(1):38–42. doi:10.1001/archopht.1943.00880190056004
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