A review of the ophthalmic literature reveals that cases of anophthalmos, both unilateral and bilateral, have been reported from time to time. In many the diagnosis was based on purely physical findings. In a limited number of cases it followed serial sections of the orbital contents. If one accepts the definition of anophthalmos as the condition in which no true eyeball tissue can be found microscopically, then few cases of anophthalmos are recorded in the literature, and it becomes impossible to distinguish clinically between anophthalmos and an extreme degree of microphthalmos.
A great many embryologic abnormalities may cause suppression of an eye. According to Mann,1 in the embryologic development of the eye three types of anophthalmos can exist. One type is caused by a failure of the optic pit to deepen and form an outgrowth from the forebrain. In a second there is a complete suppression or an abnormality
HARE R. CONGENITAL BILATERAL ANOPHTHALMOS. Arch Ophthalmol. 1943;30(3):320–330. doi:10.1001/archopht.1943.00880210044004
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