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Professor Marquez' well known ideas about biastigmatism are extensively developed in this book. The first chapter deals with spherical refraction and the second with cylindric lenses and bicylindric combinations. In the following chapters the diagnosis of astigmatism by skiascopy and with cylinders is aptly explained. Then there is a comparison of the Marquez method with use of the ophthalmometer and subjective examination, on the one hand, and the ordinary methods, on the other. Marquez considers the use of the ophthalmometer to measure the curvature of the anterior surface of the cornea as important as the use of the ophthalmoscope. He always applies it in connection with the subjective method to determine the amount of biastigmatism.
The book ends with thirty-one pages of mathematical tables for converting bicylindric combinations into spherocylindric lenses and instructions on how to use them. The author asserts that, although by trigonometry and use of logarithms the
Troncoso MU. Astigmatismo, biastigmatismo y tablas de transformacion. Arch Ophthalmol. 1943;30(3):420. doi:10.1001/archopht.1943.00880210144018
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