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December 1943


Arch Ophthalmol. 1943;30(6):809-810. doi:10.1001/archopht.1943.00880240127013

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To the Editor:  —The concept of emmetropia, though it is fundamental in the ophthalmologist's work, is hardly as simple and fixed as textbook definitions seem to imply. As evidence of this one may refer to an article by Dr. Edwin S. Munson (Emmetropia, Arch. Ophth.29: 109 [Jan.] 1943). Several points relative to emmetropia not touched on in that article are, I believe, of sufficient interest to be mentioned.The aberrations of the eye play an important role not only in determination of visual acuity but in the very definition of emmetropia. Gullstrand, for example, made his emmetropic eye 1.00 D. hyperopic for paraxial rays. To understand fully the implication of this, one must visualize how the light from an object point is acted on by the eye as the light passes through the different mediums. In essence, every pencil of light from an object which passes through the pupil

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