[Skip to Navigation]
April 1944


Author Affiliations

Medical Corps, Army of the United States

Arch Ophthalmol. 1944;31(4):335-336. doi:10.1001/archopht.1944.00890040073015

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


Ophthalmologists have long sought for objective methods of refraction, since the results are reliable and will therefore give the greatest percentage of relief. To further this end, the axis chart which I used in the course of refraction with streak retinoscopy is presented ; use of this chart appreciably shortens the examination, at no expense to precision. For patients of all ages, cycloplegic refraction is the most reliable and is the method of choice, and neutralization by plus and minus spheres is the common method.

I use the method of electric streak retinoscopy (Copeland), which is not as popular as planomirror retinoscopy but which has been found to be scientific, reliable and convenient. A few words will describe the simple construction of the streak retinoscope (Copeland).

STREAK RETINOSCOPY  The streak of light is produced by the specially constructed filament, which is designated in the shape of a hairpin or an inverted,

First Page Preview View Large
First page PDF preview
First page PDF preview
Add or change institution