The subject assigned refers primarily to changes brought about by alterations in atmospheric pressure and in partial pressure of oxygen, to rapid and severe changes in temperature and to protection of the eyes against glare, air blast, dust and flying debris. Changes in atmos1 pheric pressure in flying are within the range between the pressure at sea level (1 atmosphere—about 15 pounds per square inch [1,050 Gm. per square centimeter], or 760 mm. of mercury) and a pressure of about ⅙ atmosphere (2½ pounds per square inch [170 Gm. per square centimeter], or 127 mm. of mercury) at the maximum altitudes now attainable by military aircraft. Pressures encountered in deep sea diving can also be expressed in terms of pressure at sea level. These pressures range from 1 to 6, 7 or 8 atmospheres.
The physiologic effects of variations in pressure are brought about in several ways :
CARSON LD. OCULAR EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE FLYING AND OF DEEP SEA DIVING. Arch Ophthalmol. 1945;33(3):173–176. doi:10.1001/archopht.1945.00890150017001
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