In a previous paper1 the existing knowledge of the voluntary and motor mechanisms controlling ocular movements was summarized. It was pointed out that the reflex mechanism was more important than the voluntary, in the eyes were constantly under the influence of f involuntary tonic impulses which determined not only their fixation of objects in space but also their relation to each other. This mechanism is the harness which keeps the eyes associated so that the two maculas are used simultaneously. The chief source of reflex tone is the visual fixation reflex. Lancaster2 pointed out some time ago the importance of this mechanism for fusion, although he considered that it was a conscious, voluntary mechanism and traced the afferent pathway from the frontal centers instead of from the optomotor center in the occipital cortex. The evidence I believe is strongly in favor of its being a purely involuntary reflex.
ADLER FH. EFFECT OF ANOXIA ON HETEROPHORIA AND ITS ANALOGY WITH CONVERGENT CONCOMITANT SQUINT. Arch Ophthalmol. 1945;34(3):227–232. doi:10.1001/archopht.1945.00890190227009
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