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Article
October 1945

STANDARD ILLUMINANTS IN RELATION TO COLORTESTING PROCEDURES

Arch Ophthalmol. 1945;34(4):278-282. doi:10.1001/archopht.1945.00890190278002
Abstract

THE PROBLEM  What is wrong with the present color-testing procedures? Why do examiners often fail to expose persons with defective color vision? Does the fault lie in the tests, the methods of administering them or the conditions under which they are administered?

IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM 

In the Army.  —An officer is shot because a cadet pilot fails to recognize a colored signal and fires an extra round. A bomber is shot down because a returning pilot fails to respond to a prearranged color signal code. Data of the Civil Aeronautics Administration show that a pilot who failed to pass the Ishihara test on the first attempt has a 50 per cent chance of passing a retest.

In the Navy.  —Tests conducted by members of the Committee on Color Blindness of the Inter-Society Color Council show that all the commonly used tests for color blindness are unreliable and largely ineffective

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