VARIOUS conditions of paralysis of ocular elevation with and without ptosis will be described and cases illustrating the different types according to the muscles paralyzed will be reported. The purpose of this paper is to differentiate real ptosis and pseudoptosis and to bring out the indications for the application and the technic of surgical procedures which may be useful in correcting the hypotropia of the paretic eye, or the hypertropia of the sound, or fellow, eye when the patient prefers to fix with the paretic eye, and, finally, in correcting the ptosis.
Under the term "paralysis of ocular elevation" may be grouped a number of cases of disturbed ocular motility in which it is difficult or impossible for the patient to look upward because of the paralysis of the superior rectus and/or the inferior oblique muscle. For the sake of simplicity, the word "ptosis" in this paper signifies blepharoptosis.
DANIEL B. KIRBY. PARALYSIS OF OCULAR ELEVATION WITH AND WITHOUT PTOSIS. Arch Ophthalmol. 1946;35(3):199–217. doi:10.1001/archopht.1946.00890200205001