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November 1948


Author Affiliations

Chief of Department of Maxillofacial Prosthesis, Richmond Freeman Memorial Clinic; Chief of Department of Ophthalmology, Richmond Freeman Memorial Clinic; Staff Ophthalmologist, Richmond Freeman Memorial Clinic; Medical Illustrator, Richmond Freeman Memorial Clinic DALLAS, TEXAS
From the Richmond Freeman Memorial Clinic, a unit of the Children's Medical Center, affiliated with the Southwestern Medical Foundation.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1948;40(5):497-508. doi:10.1001/archopht.1948.00900030510003

ANOPHTHALMOS was defined clinically by Mann1 as a condition in which no eyeball, however small, can be found in the orbit. In life it would obviously be impractical to distinguish between true anophthalmos and an extreme degree of microphthalmos, for the matter could be determined only by microscopic examination of serial sections of the orbital contents. This would be of small clinical importance, even though the theoretic aspects are interesting.

ETIOLOGY  May2 stated that congenital anomalies of the eyeball are rare and may be bilateral. In anophthalmos the eyeball is replaced by a small solid or cystic mass. Parsons3 stated the belief that even though the eyeball may apparently be absent (congenital anophthalmos) there are always microscopic vestiges of ocular tissues. In Berens' textbook,4 congenital abnormalities are classified as (1) those due to errors of development, which may occur at any stage in fetal life, e.

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