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December 1949


Arch Ophthalmol. 1949;42(6):755-767. doi:10.1001/archopht.1949.00900050766005

ALBINOS have been known and described as such since very early times, but, unfortunately, the condition has been considered an anthropologic and genetic problem rather than a medical one. Albinism is a complex condition which probably includes more than just a lack of pigmentation.1 It is usually divided into complete albinism and partial albinism, often called albinoidism or leukism (Gates2). Complete albinism, which will be referred to simply as albinism, is a genetic recessive character, transmitted by a partially sex-linked mosaic of genes (Castle and Allen3). Since the condition seems to be found more commonly in men, it was thought at one time to be semifatal to women, but there is no evidence for such an assumption. Albinism is characterized by pigmentless hair, skin and eyes and by ocular defects. Ametropia, astigmatism, nystagmus, photophopia and amblyopia are almost invariably all present. With age, albinos not uncommonly acquire

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