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June 1950


Arch Ophthalmol. 1950;43(6):1088-1089. doi:10.1001/archopht.1950.00910011105015

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To the Editor:  —Recently I attended an instruction hour at a meeting of the Section of Ophthalmology at the New York Academy of Medicine on cross cylinder tests, conducted by Dr. J. I. Pascal, and I have been wondering since why the technic as outlined at that lecture is not described in any of the current textbooks on refraction. Neither has it been taught me in any of the courses in refraction which I have taken. Dr. Pascal's technic consists in making all astigmatic tests while the eye is maintained in what he calls meridional balance, that is, with the retina straddling the interval of Sturm at the circle of least confusion. He explained the reasons for the superiority of this method over the usually taught technic of making the test while the eye is fogged fully or slightly.I have since adopted Dr. Pascal's recommendations in my practice, with

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