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November 1952


Author Affiliations


AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1952;48(5):620-623. doi:10.1001/archopht.1952.00920010631009

GEORGE Raeder,1 a Norwegian neurologist, in 1918 first described a disturbance of the oculopupillary fibers associated with an incomplete Horner syndrome. The patient had headache, vomiting, pain in the left trigeminal area, paresis of the left side of the palate, and ptosis, miosis, and hypotonia, on the left, without vasomotor or trophic disturbances. The patient died of pulmonary tuberculosis, and necropsy revealed a tumor, described as an endothelioma, between the internal carotid artery and the Gasserian ganglion. The cervical sympathetic trunk was carefully examined down to the third thoracic segment without any lesion being found.

This case was of extreme interest, since it presented a sympathetic syndrome quite distinct in anatomical localization from the ordinary sympathetic syndrome produced by spinal lesions or lesions of the cervical sympathetic fibers. Raeder suggested, therefore, that lesions of the sympathetic fibers be classified as follows:

In 1924 Raeder reported four more cases of