DEFECTIVE abduction is the result of various conditions having little in common other than a limitation in abduction. For this reason, it is evident that these various conditions are nonconcomitant. They have therefore few, if any, of the various causes of concomitant strabismus. In all cases the defective abduction is the result of a peripheral orbital defect, i. e., neuromuscular, of the muscle alone, or of the muscle and the fascia, or is due to a pathological condition of the central nervous system, i. e., congenital (perhaps developmental), disease of the central nervous system, trauma, or neoplasm. Three of the defects to be considered are usually spoken of as congenital. These are the Duane retraction syndrome, strabismus fixus, and so-called congenital sixth nerve paralysis. A fourth, to be discussed, is an acquired, or permanent, form of sixth nerve paralysis.
THE RETRACTION SYNDROME
The retraction syndrome is an interesting syndrome, or
SPAETH EB. SURGICAL ASPECTS OF DEFECTIVE ABDUCTION. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1953;49(1):49–62. doi:10.1001/archopht.1953.00920020052008
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