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October 1953

HYPEROPHTHALMOPATHIC GRAVES'S DISEASE: Clinical Observations in Nineteen Cases

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Ophthalmology and the Endocrine Section of the Medical Clinic, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1953;50(4):479-490. doi:10.1001/archopht.1953.00920030487009

THE PURPOSE of this report is to describe the clinical course of 19 patients with hyperophthalmopathic Graves's disease followed for periods varying from ½ to 20 years. The classification and relation to thyroid dysfunction are considered in the light of this experience.

The ocular manifestations which we have chosen to call the hyperophthalmopathic phenomena of Graves's disease are also known by several other names: malignant, progressive, or postoperative exophthalmos; exophthalmic ophthalmoplegia; the ophthalmopathic form of Graves's disease, and thyrotropic exophthalmos. The current concept of Graves's disease has been aptly summarized by Means1 as follows:

Graves' disease, therefore, may be defined as a constitutional disturbance of unknown origin, characterized in its full-blown classic form by hyperplasia of the thyroid, hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, and an utterly unique type of ophthalmopathy, together with widespread changes in other systems of the body. Many cases fulfill all these requirements; some only a portion of

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