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February 1955


Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Ophthalmology and Anesthesiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.; Presented in part before the Section on Ophthalmology, College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Dec. 18, 1952.

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1955;53(2):177-190. doi:10.1001/archopht.1955.00930010179002

THIS PAPER presents certain experimental and clinical observations on the ophthalmologic use of two new long-lasting anesthetic agents, efocaine and U-0045.* The duration of anesthesia and local tissue toxicity produced by these new agents were compared with those produced by such widely used local anesthetics as procaine, tetracaine (Pontocaine), and lidocaine (Xylocaine). Conclusions based on the use of U-0045 to obtain retrobulbar anesthesia in more than 550 operations upon the eyeball or extraocular muscles are presented.

The advantages which would accrue from local anesthesia of sufficient duration to avoid postoperative pain are obvious. Nearly all patients have some discomfort, often severe, after intraocular surgery. Pain may cause patients to become apprehensive and restless. They may squeeze their eyelids forcibly together beneath the dressings and thus interfere with re-formation of the anterior chamber. Iris prolapse may result. Nausea and vomiting may be precipitated by ocular pain through the vagus reflex. The

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