Retinal diseases fall into two large groups: (1) those which develop as a result of circulatory disturbances and find expression in retinopathies more or less intimately associated with the retinal vessels, and (2) those extravascular lesions which are often hereditary and almost always degenerative in character. The latter have no place in this discussion. Retinopathies resulting from circulatory disturbances may be entirely intravascular in type or may be accompanied by edema, exudates, or hemorrhages as extravascular components of the same underlying process. In such cases the extravascular component usually is a quantitative expression, an overflow as it were, of a process no longer controlled by or contained within the retinal vessels. The increase in permeability which permits this pathologic movement of fluid or formed elements into extravascular space may, in turn, be due not only to structural or functional modifications of the lumen and walls of the vessels but also
ANDERSON B, VALLOTTON W. Etiology and Therapy of Retinal Vascular Occlusions. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1955;54(1):6–12. doi:10.1001/archopht.1955.00930020008002
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