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August 1955

Electromyography of the Human Extraocular Muscles: I. Normal Kinesiology; Divergence Mechanism

Author Affiliations

New York
From the Departments of Ophthalmology and Physical Medicine of the New York University Postgraduate School of Medicine, and the Section of Ophthalmology, Veterans Administration Hospital, New York.

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1955;54(2):200-210. doi:10.1001/archopht.1955.00930020204006

In the past few years there has been a great deal of interest in the recording of the action potentials of the extraocular muscles. This is a natural extension of the field of clinical electromyography, which has contributed so largely to understanding of the disturbances in nerve and muscle function throughout the body induced by trauma and disease. Studies of the human extraocular muscles were not attempted because of difficulties of technique and instrumentation. These obstacles have been overcome, and we now find ourselves on the threshold of a new understanding of many old problems common to ophthalmology and neurology; indeed, these disciplines are brought into even closer harmony.

HISTORY  High lights in the evolution of electrophysiologic concepts of nerve and muscle function are the following: 1. Dubois-Reymond, in 1848,1 established the "action current" principle, or wave of electrical negativity of the nerve impulse. 2. Piper,2 in 1907,

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