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March 1956

Ocular Axes and Meridians During Oblique Oculorotations: A Contribution to the Problem of So-Called False Torsion

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1956;55(3):380-396. doi:10.1001/archopht.1956.00930030384009

Two rather unrelated circumstances turned my attention lately to the problem of the behavior of the vertical and horizontal ocular meridians during oblique oculorotations, the problem of so-called false torsion. Though seemingly of purely academic interest, it has never ceased to intrigue ophthalmologists, up to the present day.

In a recent study of the horopter, I found myself in agreement with the conclusions of Luneburg, according to which the horopter is a torus of a sort, a peculiarly curved plane, all points of which subtend a constant angle (γ) with the centers of rotation of the two eyes. Bifixating the center Po of a given horopter torus (the midpoint of the horizontal Vieth-Müller circle), the eyes converge γ degrees and are in what might be called the primary position of convergence. However, not only this point, but each and every point P of the toric structure can be similarly