In Vogt's classification of developmental dysostosis of the skull and the face,1 the two main categories of dyscrania and dysprosopia were established according to whether the exclusive or predominant site of the defect is the cranium or the facial skeleton; cases in which the head is involved as a whole fall into a third group, for which the name of dyscephalia is reserved.
Among the dysprosopias all conditions in which the dysontogenic process interferes mainly with the development of the osseous scaffolding of the face must be listed. Franceschetti and Zwahlen's mandibulofacial dysostosis,2 Hallermann and Streiff's special type of mandibulofacial dysostosis,* Villaret and Desoille's † primary hypoplasia of the upper maxilla, Nager and de Reynier's mandibular dysostosis,5 and, to a certain extent, familial primitive hypoplasia of the orbital margin7 and Waardenburg's syndrome of embryonic fixation6 are all more or less clear-cut entities which deserve to
URRETS-ZAVALÍA A. The Peristomodeal Malformations. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1956;55(4):526–545. doi:10.1001/archopht.1956.00930030530012
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