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November 1956

Marcus Gunn Phenomenon Following Squint and Ptosis Surgery: Definition and Review

Author Affiliations

Vancouver, B. C., Canada

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1956;56(5):743-748. doi:10.1001/archopht.1956.00930040751014

Marcus Gunn,1 in 1883, published in the Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom, a case of "Congenital ptosis with peculiar associated movements of the affected lid." Earlier summaries of case reports were made by Sinclair,2 in 1895 (32 cases) and Villard,3 in 1925 (93 cases). Grant4 reviewed the literature and published the 101st case in 1936. Falls, Kruse, and Cotterman5 published a good summary in the American Journal of Ophthalmology in 1949. They collected 115 published cases. Spaeth,6 in 1947, found 2 cases in 100 consecutive ptosis cases; to other authors this has appeared an unusually high incidence. Kanter,7 in 1955, reports eight cases, of which six were typical.

The Marcus Gunn phenomenon is often referred to as the jaw-winking phenomenon. This is inaccurate, because it is not a wink but a lid retraction.

Clinical Picture  The typical case is

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