Toxoplasma gondii was discovered by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in a rodent from northern Africa, and the first authentic human infection was documented 29 years later, reported by Wolf et al. (1937). It has been only during the last few years that the disease in man has attained clinical importance. Toxoplasmosis exists in two main forms: (1) Congenital toxoplasmosis is that in which the infection passes through the placenta from an asymptomatic mother to her infant. This form of the disease occurs as encephalitis and may be accompanied by chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, microcephaly, microphthalmus, intracerebral calcification, or mental retardation. (2) Postnatal toxoplasmosis is acquired either in childhood or adult life, probably from a closely associated animal reservoir, and may present symptoms of remittent fever together with pneumonitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, or myositis often accompanied by a mild generalized lymphadenopathy. A maculopapular erythematous rash may be present. In the past this second
KESSEL JF. Observations on the Methylene Blue Dye Test for Toxoplasma. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1958;59(6):861–867. doi:10.1001/archopht.1958.00940070075008
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