It is my purpose to describe simple and practical techniques which make it possible to diagnose early hemianopic defects and relative central scotomas which might be missed with standard methods. These new techniques also contribute evidence that the phrase "macular sparing" is a misnomer.
The use of more than one target to stimulate different positions of the retina simultaneously has been limited mainly to the study of the phenomenon of "extinction." * Multiple targets have been used in the Harrington-Flocks2 tachystoscopic screener, but to my knowledge no one has used multiple targets with the conventional tangent screen in the manner I shall describe.
Conventional single-target testing requires only a "present" or "absent" type of response. Use of multiple targets allows a patient to make a comparison of brightness and therefore is more delicate. At the same time, it is easier for the patient and the examiner to decide whether a
ZELLER RW. Multiple Targets in Visual Field Examinations with a Tangent Screen. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1958;60(5):826–827. doi:10.1001/archopht.1958.00940080846003
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