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April 1960

Results of Pleoptics in the Management of Amblyopia with Eccentric Fixation

AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1960;63(4):675-681. doi:10.1001/archopht.1960.00950020677009

The increasingly widespread use in this country of pleoptic methods in the management of patients with amblyopia and eccentric fixation warrants a discussion of some of the basic concepts and the results obtained from its use.

The word pleoptics was conceived by Bangarter to designate all methods utilized in the treatment of amblyopia. He devised many instruments to treat eccentric fixation. These were based on dazzling the true fovea while simultaneously shielding the site of eccentric fixation. An internationally-renowned neurophysiologist, Dr. Charles Cüppers, quickly appreciated the merit of this new method. He subsequently developed four relatively simple, inexpensive instruments which have gained widespread recognition and use. Cüppers' method is based on dazzling the site of eccentric fixation while simultaneously shielding the true fovea.

His first instrument is called the Visuskop (Fig. 1) and is used to diagnose eccentric fixation. It is a modified ophthalmoscope which projects a black star on