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July 1960


Author Affiliations

University Eye Clinic Groningen, Holland

Arch Ophthalmol. 1960;64(1):160-161. doi:10.1001/archopht.1960.01840010162019

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To the Editor:  —In the December, 1959, issue of the A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology, I read with great interest Dr. Francis A. L'Esperance's article about "Greater Image Magnification in Indirect Ophthalmoscopy."I am afraid, however, that I cannot agree with his assumptions, nor with his alleged results.The simple optic laws concerning indirect ophthalmoscopy have been laid down more than 40 years ago by Gullstrand and others and can be formulated as follows:1. The image of the patient's retina should be pictured on the retina of the observer. (This is more or less self-evident. When both patient and observer are emmetropic, it means that both the entering and emerging rays must be parallel.)2. The image of the patient's pupil must lie in the pupil of the observer and vice versa. (Only in this case there is no vignetting by the border of either pupil, and the only "diaphragm"

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