The difficulty in reestablishing and maintaining an epithelialized lumen from the conjunctiva to the nose is well known to those of us who have tried to accomplish this by stricturotomy, suture anastomosis, and the insertion of various types of tubes.
We have been constantly confronted with the fact that trauma to the passages frequently results in scarring and new strictures; also, sutured flaps have a tendency to return to their former position.
During the 1940's at Stanford I utilized the empyema tube, the urethral catheter, and a shortened tonsil injection needle to provide a long period of drainage and give a better chance for epithelization to occur.
The introduction of polyethylene tubing in about 1950 was greeted with enthusiasm, but I had observed too often the pitiful effects of injudicious probing and manipulations of the puncti and canaliculi to be pleased with the fact that this tubing was usually introduced
IRVINE RS. Buried Rubber Tubes in Nasolacrimal Duct Stenosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;65(2):192–195. doi:10.1001/archopht.1961.01840020194007
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