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July 1961

Selected Studies with Electro-Oculograms: Part II: Subjective Evaluation of Ocular Proprioception Monitored with the Use of Electro-Oculograms

Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;66(1):130-132. doi:10.1001/archopht.1961.00960010132027

The problem of proprioception in the extraocular movements has been examined previously. Cooper, Daniel, and Whitteridge demonstrated on histological grounds that proprioceptors exist in the extrinsic eye muscles of man. By electrophysiological methods, they showed that the nerves from the eye muscles carry afferent impulses from stretch receptors to the brain stem. We were interested in finding out if these afferent impulses from the eye muscles had a cortical or conscious component similar to that present in other musculature, or whether vision (retinoception) or touch (of cornea and conjunctiva on conjunctiva) is a major factor. If these eye movements are knowledgeable when vision and touch are obtunded, then the term "proprioception"—("appreciation of position, balance, and changes in equilibrium on the part of the muscular system, especially during locomotion"), according to Blakiston's New Gould Medical Dictionary—may be properly used with reference to the extraocular muscles. If this is not the