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Article
October 1961

Pure and Impure A-V Syndromes

Author Affiliations

San Francisco
From the Department of Ophthalmology, Presbyterian Medical Center, San Francisco.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;66(4):524-527. doi:10.1001/archopht.1961.00960010526014
Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to present a picture of the A-V syndrome somewhat different than the conventional one. Although the approach to be presented here may not be original, it is one that is neglected for the most part in the literature. Based on this approach, a scheme will be described for determining which muscles may be at fault.

Generally speaking, the A-V syndrome has been defined as an abnormal variation in the amount of horizontal deviation as the eyes move from the straight up to the straight down position of gaze. More stringent definitions specify exactly how much variation is abnormal and how far above and below the horizontal plane the gaze should be tested.1,2 But no matter how strict or loose the specifications, the conventional definition limits itself to changes between straight ahead positions of gaze. This type of A-V syndrome, based solely on the

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