There are many types and causes of ptosis. Ptosis may be congenital or acquired, hereditary or nonhereditary. The hereditary type may be congenital or may come on later in life. It may be due to injury or secondary to operations on or about the eye. It may be due to general disease, to neurologic disorders such as myasthenia gravis, or to a myopathy such as progressive opthalmoplegia externa. Ptosis may be due to simple weakness of the levator or to complete paralysis of the levator, and this weakness or paralysis may be due to a third nerve lesion or to malformation of the muscle itself. It may be associated with superior rectus weakness or with paralysis of upward gaze, and it may be bilateral or unilateral. Therefore, as important as the technical aspect of the operation itself, is the selection of the proper operation for a given situation. A
JOHNSON CC. Blepharoptosis: Selection of Operation, Operative Techniques, Complications. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;66(6):793–805. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1961.00960010795005
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