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This monograph takes its origin from a scientific exhibit on the history of tonometry which the author, Dr. Joerg Draeger of the University Eye Clinic in Hamburg, Germany, presented at a recent meeting of the German Ophthalmological Society. The exhibit and the monograph are based on extensive literary research as well as on original clinical investigations by the author.
Constructive thinking about tonometry on the intact (noncannulated) living human eye started about a hundred years ago. Von Graefe in Berlin and Donders in Utrecht designed the first impression tonometers while Weber was pioneering in applanation tonometry. A good many of the early tonometers had to be designed for application to the sclera or through the upper lid. The advent of local anesthesia made the cornea the logical site for tonometry.
The next milestone was Hjalmar Schiøtz's impression tonometer, the success of which was due to its mechanical simplicity and
Geschichte der Tonometrie: Physikalische Grundlagen, methodische Entwicklung und klinische Anwendung. Arch Ophthalmol. 1962;67(3):393–394. doi:10.1001/archopht.1962.00960020395020
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