Scientific advances in nuclear physics and astronautics have given man the capability to produce atomic explosions and will soon enable him to explore extraterrestrial space. Operations in each of these areas present situations that will be hazardous to the vision of those involved, due to exposure to light of a high intensity. The magnitude of this problem can be appreciated by the demonstration that a 20 kiloton (KT) nuclear weapon can produce a retinal burn in human subjects who are at least 36.3 miles from a detonation during the day and 40 miles at night.3 Strughold and Ritter have calculated that an astronaut in a solar orbit will be exposed to light of an intensity of about 106 lux at the orbit of Mercury and that an exposure to solar radiation of 130,000 lux at a distance just beyond the earth's atmosphere will be sufficient to cause a
SEVERIN SL, NEWTON NL, CULVER JF. A New Approach to the Study of Flash Blindness: Use of the Zeiss Light Coagulator. Arch Ophthalmol. 1962;67(5):578–582. doi:10.1001/archopht.1962.00960020578011
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