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August 1962

The Fundus Oculi of the Pigeon

Author Affiliations

Durham, N. C.
Division of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1962;68(2):252-253. doi:10.1001/archopht.1962.00960030256017

Although Wood's atlas of the various avian fundi is excellent,1 we could find no photographs of an avian fundus in the literature. Since the ophthalmoscopic and anatomic details of the avian eye are unique and interesting, we present this paper.

Methods and Materials  The common pigeon, Columba livia, was used. The amount of 2 to 4 drops of freshly prepared tubocurare chloride, 2.25 mg. per cubic centimeter in 0.025% benzalkonium chloride, was applied to each eye. After 10 to 20 minutes there was maximum mydriasis.2 The pigeon was sedated with approximately 10 mg. of secobarbital intramuscularly. While one examiner manipulated the sedated pigeon, another operated a standard fundus camera in the routine manner.

Comment  The pigeon fundus is representative. Birds are the first subprimate to possess a fovea. The fundus is anangiotic with only choroidal blood vessels ophthalmoscopically visible. Retinal nutrients are supplied through the choroidal vessels and

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