[Skip to Navigation]
November 1963

Intracranial Vascular Disease

Arch Ophthalmol. 1963;70(5):591. doi:10.1001/archopht.1963.00960050593001

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


Participation of the visual system in intracranial vascular disease was the subject of a symposium at the American Medical Association's Meeting last June. The papers will be published collectively in the Transactions of the Section of Ophthalmology and some of them will be published separately in the Archives or elsewhere.

In discussing classifications of hypertensive retinal changes Rucker pointed out that the Keith-Wagener system of grading had been misused and abused. It was intended to apply to essential hypertension only and not to such conditions as nephritis and toxemia of pregnancy. Its most valuable service is in the prediction of life expectancy.

The circle of Willis figured prominently in the Symposium. With the help of drawings from the University of Michigan art department, Henderson pointed out the vast array of anatomic variants. Actually, the symmetric circle of Willis which one sees depicted in textbooks is the exception rather than the

First Page Preview View Large
First page PDF preview
First page PDF preview
Add or change institution