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June 1964

Developmental Study of Coordinated Eye Movements in the Human Infant: II. An Electro-Oculographic Study of the Fixation Reflex in the Newborn

Author Affiliations

Los Angeles
From the Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Los Angeles, The Center for the Health Sciences.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1964;71(6):871-875. doi:10.1001/archopht.1964.00970010887018

The term "fixation reflex," as used in this paper, refers to the optomotor reflex responsible for the placement and the maintenance of the image of an object on the fovea. Duke-Elder, Linksz, and others have termed the fine adjustments necessary for the continued presence of the same image on the fovea "refixation," and reserve fixation for the initial foveal placement.1,2 Adler has referred to the fixation reflex in reference only to the maintenance of the image on the fovea after the object of regard has first been captured by what he speaks of as the "following reflexes."3

As defined for use in this study, the fixation reflex in the newborn has been considered to be only feebly developed, the response being limited to a strong stimulus such as a bright light.4 For at least the first two weeks of life, most eye movements are said to be

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