Introduction: Filarias Pathogenic to Man
The filaria is a parasite which belongs to the group of Nematodes. Four types are pathogenic to man: Wuchereria bancrofti, causing Bancroft's filariasis; Onchocercavolvulus, causing onchocerciasis; Loa loa, causing loaiasis; and Dracunculus medinensis, causing dracunculiasis. These infections are transmitted by insects which harbor larvae. These larvae inoculated in man liberate microfilariae, some of which are blood-borne (W bancrofti and L loa), while others remain in the subcutaneous tissues (O volvulus and D medinensis).In D filariasis, the only ocular complication seems to be the localization and eventual calcification of a filaria behind the eye-ball.Onchocerciasis (O volvulus) is seen in Central Africa and in Central America. Its ocular pathogenic role is much more frequent than that of the other filariae. Onchocerciasis may manifest itself by: keratitis, conjunctivitis, iridocyclitis, chorioretinitis, and atrophy of the optic nerve. The last two result from filarial arteritis.2-4,11,16Bancroft's
TOUSSAINT D, DANIS P. Retinopathy in Generalized Loa-Loa Filariasis: A Clinico pathological Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1965;74(4):470–476. doi:10.1001/archopht.1965.00970040472007
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