The anatomy and pathology of the choroidal vasculature in human eyes has been studied using intravascular injection techniques, conventional histologic cross sections, and flat preparations of the choroid. Interarterial anastomotic relationships are demonstrated as are the anatomic features of the choriocapillaris and vortex veins. The pathologic changes of ageing, hypertension, and glaucoma are observed. Round holes in Bruch's membrane at the posterior pole are regularly present in flat preparations from healthy adult eyes. It is suggested that these defects in Bruch's membrane contribute to the development of central serous retinopathy, detachment of the pigment epithelium, and disciform degeneration of the macula.
Ring HG, Fujino T. Observations on the Anatomy and Pathology of the Choroidal Vasculature. Arch Ophthalmol. 1967;78(4):431–444. doi:10.1001/archopht.1967.00980030433005
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