Fifty-five specimens of the aqueous humor of 47 patients were taken at the time of cataract surgery. Examination was made for motile treponemes, and specific fluorescent antibody and immunologic studies were done on the aqueous humor and serum. Motile treponemes were seen, but proven not to be Treponema pallidum in two eyes. No definite spirochete for ocular syphilis was found in this series. Immunoelectrophoresis studies of the aqueous humor showed only an albumin band. It is concluded that the patients studied who were clinically free of syphilis with serum negative for FTA-ABS antibodies do not have T pallidum in the aqueous humor. A control group is thus furnished which tends to substantiate the validity of previous investigations in this field.