[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]
March 1969

Refraction: Neurophysiological and Psychological Viewpoints.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1969;81(3):446. doi:10.1001/archopht.1969.00990010448024

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


This brief monograph presents the author's views on refraction which are based on an extensive and long experience. He strives to inject some new life into what he believes is an unpopular subject. The central idea is that cerebral visual mechanisms play a fundamentally important role in refraction and that it is a fallacy to evaluate visual acuity solely in terms of geometrical optics.

The heart of the book is a presentation of the author's own investigative work and statistical evaluation of clinical patients with astigmatism. He presents evidence to show that central mechanisms are important in the ability of patients to adapt and adjust (accommodate) to astigmatism. He emphasizes that subjective tests are primarily tests of neural function. The idea that "astigmatic accommodation" has both a peripheral and central component is interesting and worth discussing.

It is refreshing to have an experienced ophthalmologist set down his ideas on a

First Page Preview View Large
First page PDF preview
First page PDF preview