• The human and monkey orbicularis muscle has fibers that are more uniform in size and structure than those of rectus muscles. They have distinct myofibrils, a moderate number of mitochondria, and a well-developed transverse T-tube system.
The levator muscle also has relatively uniform fibers, but the myofibrils are less distinct than those of the orbicularis. Especially noteworthy is the unusual arrangement whereby Müller muscle arises directly from the undersurface of the levator muscle, causing an intimate intermingling of smooth and striated fibers. Müller muscle then inserts on the tarsus, whereas the levator muscle extends by an aponeurosis into the septa of the orbicularis muscle.
In surgical specimens from patients with ptosis, the levator fibers show varying degrees of abnormality, whereas Müller fibers are normal.
Kuwabara T, Cogan DG, Johnson CC. Structure of the Muscles of the Upper Eyelid. Arch Ophthalmol. 1975;93(11):1189–1197. doi:10.1001/archopht.1975.01010020889012
Coronavirus Resource Center
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.
Create a personal account or sign in to: