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January 1977

A Decision-Oriented Manual of Retinoscopy

Author Affiliations

Iowa City


by Stephen Mark Weinstock, MD, and Jonathan Dine Wirtschafter, MS, MD, FACS, 104 pp, 43 illus, $11.50, paper $7.75, Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1976.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1977;95(1):166. doi:10.1001/archopht.1977.04450010166023

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


This manual is a well-written and effectively illustrated guide to streak retinoscopy. Although it is intended primarily to help the student by self-instruction, there is much that the seasoned practitioner will find useful. The succinct text is an analysis and a tribute to the techniques of the late Jack C. Copeland who introduced streak retinoscopy in the United States.

The decision-oriented method for performing retinoscopy consists of 13 steps, which can be practiced and perfected utilizing a schematic eye. Each step is carefully explained and diagramed in sequence. Practice exercises with the schematic eye provide opportunities to test the techniques and skills of the retinoscopist. A flow chart of the decision-oriented method summarizes the technique. In most patients, the number of steps can be reduced from the 13 described by the authors. The final chapter briefly describes and illustrates the optics of retinoscopy.

This manual is highly recommended for ophthalmic

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