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June 1981

Blepharospasm Surgery: An Anatomical Approach

Author Affiliations

From the Oculoplastic Service, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1981;99(6):1056-1062. doi:10.1001/archopht.1981.03930011056015

• Essential blepharospasm is an idiopathic, progressively debilitating disease leading to blindness. Years of forceful spasms result in brow ptosis, dermatochalasis, and, frequently, levator aponeurosis and lateral canthal tendon defects. Following standard neurectomy procedures, the facies droop, brow ptosis and dermatochalasis worsen, and ptosis and canthal tendon laxity suddenly become more evident. We describe a procedure involving meticulous extirpation of all accessible orbicularis oculi, procerus, corrugator superciliaris, and facial nerves in postorbicular fascia. This extirpation of eyelid protractors is combined with browplasty with fixation to frontalis and reinforcement of the levator aponeurosis to strengthen the retractors. Our technique opens the eye just as effectively as standard facial neurectomy procedures, simultaneously corrects associated anatomical deformities, and avoids facial paralysis. Gratifying results were obtained in 15 patients followed up for six to 38 months.

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