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March 1984

Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Hydrolysis of D,L-Dipivefrin

Author Affiliations

From the Ophthalmology Section, Bronx (NY) Veterans Administration Hospital (Dr Mindel), and the Departments of Ophthalmology (Dr Mindel), Pharmacology (Drs Mindel and Barker), and Neurology (Dr Cohen and Mr Lewis), Mount Sinai School of Medicine of the City University of New York. Dr Barker is now with the Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(3):457-460. doi:10.1001/archopht.1984.01040030371041

• D,L-dipivefrin hydrochloride was administered bilaterally to rabbit eyes five or 150 minutes after unilateral application of a cholinesterase inhibitor. Aqueous humor levels of D,L-epinephrine, measured 30 minutes later by high-performance liquid chromatography, were not significantly different in the two eyes. Nonenzymatic conversion of D,L-dipivefrin to D,L-epinephrine was measured in tissue-free (pH 7.4) solutions; after three hours less than 1% of D,L-dipivefrin became D,L-epinephrine. Homogenates of corneal epithelium were 16 times more effective in converting D,L-dipivefrin to D,L-epinephrine than after heat-inactivation. The ocular hypotension produced by 0.25% D,L-dipivefrin eyedrops was unaffected by prior administration of 0.25% echothiophate iodide eyedrops provided the D,L-dipivefrin was administered after the echothiophate-induced ocular hypertensive phase. It was concluded that D,Ldipivefrin was converted to D,L-epinephrine in vivo primarily by enzymatic hydrolysis and that cholinesterase inhibitors did not affect this conversion.

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