• Intraoperative continuous-registration length and tension curves of attached and detached eye muscles were made in 18 strabismic patients under general anesthesia. For relaxed eye muscles, we found an exponential relation between length and tension. An increased stiffness was quantified in Duane's syndrome, Graves' disease, orbital-floor fracture, and superior oblique palsy. The stiffnesses of agonist and antagonist were remarkably similar, not only in uncomplicated squint, but also when only one of the two had initially become stiffer. After intravenous administration of succinylcholine chloride, the eye muscles contracted, and the exponential length and tension curve changed into a set of straight, parallel lines. In addition, we measured stiffness in passive horizontal eye movement in awake volunteers and found 0.52 to 1.26 g/degrees (other eye in 5° of adduction), confirming other published results.
Simonsz HJ, Kolling GH, Kaufman H, van Dijk B. Intraoperative Length and Tension Curves of Human Eye Muscles: Including Stiffness in Passive Horizontal Eye Movement in Awake Volunteers. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986;104(10):1495–1500. doi:10.1001/archopht.1986.01050220089034
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