• Grave's ophthalmopathy, anophthalmia, trauma, surgery, burns, and skin disorders can result in lower eyelid retraction. The retracted lower eyelid is tight in contrast to the lax lower eyelid of the common involutional ectropion. Cicatrization of the skin and muscle produces the prototype cicatricial ectropion. Downward traction on all layers of the lid rather than cicatrization causes lower eyelid retraction. Sixty-one retracted lower eyelids were surgically repaired without a skin graft in 40 patients. In the new technique, the retracted lower lid is repaired by releasing the lower eyelid retractors from their tarsal attachment. A lateral canthoplasty and lower lid prezygomatic flap anchored to the orbital periosteum support the released lower eyelid.
Small RG, Scott M. The Tight Retracted Lower Eyelid. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108(3):438–444. doi:10.1001/archopht.1990.01070050136048
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