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November 1991

Manual Occluder for Use in Ophthalmic Education

Author Affiliations

Columbia, Mo

Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109(11):1491. doi:10.1001/archopht.1991.01080110025004

To the Editor.  —To teach ocular fundus pathology and ophthalmoscopy, several clinicians have constructed devices that house interchangeable photographic images of the fundus.1-3 The images can be made erect or inverted. An "examiner" views the photographic image by looking through an aperture with a direct or indirect ophthalmoscope. This teaches actual fundus pathology as well as the skill of creating the visual montage. The mannequin model is limited, however, in that only one examiner can be taught at a time. To simultaneously teach fundus pathology and direct ophthalmoscopy skills to groups of students, a partial occluder for use with projected fundus photographs was devised.The occluder (Figure) is constructed of a rigid, lightweight, material, such as cardboard, with approximate dimensions of 1 × 1 m. It has a central round hole approximately 33 cm in diameter. The surface facing the projected light is dark green or black, with a

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