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March 1995

The Efficacy of Apraclonidine as an Adjunct to Timolol Therapy

Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113(3):287-292. doi:10.1001/archopht.1995.01100030041019

Objective:  To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of 0.5% and 1.0% apraclonidine hydrochloride when used adjunctively with 0.5% timolol maleate in 129 patients.

Design:  A multicenter, randomized, double-masked clinical trial. Adult patients of either sex diagnosed as having either open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were enrolled in the study. Patients using only 0.5% timolol maleate twice daily for at least 4 weeks and who had 8 AM IOPs of at least 22 mm Hg and no greater than 30 mm Hg 12 hours after dosing were eligible for the study. After 8 AM baseline IOPs were obtained while patients were taking timolol only, they were then randomized to receive either 0.5% or 1.0% apraclonidine twice daily in addition to their timolol. Intraocular pressures were measured at 8 AM (before morning dosing) and at 11 AM (3 hours after dosing) on days 14 and 90 and at 8 AM only on day 45.

Results:  Both concentrations of apraclonidine produced significant IOP reductions from baseline at all visits (P<.001). At 8 AM, after the nighttime dose, the additional mean IOP reduction from the timolol baseline ranged from 2.5 to 3.3 mm Hg (10.3% to 13.6% reduction, respectively). At 11 AM, 3 hours after the morning dose, the additional IOP reduction from the timolol baseline ranged from 4.7 to 5.2 mm Hg (20.0% to 21.7%, respectively). No difference in IOP reduction was observed between the 0.5% and 1.0% apraclonidine concentrations and no loss of IOP efficacy was observed for either concentration for the duration of the study. Sensitivity to 0.5% and 1.0% apraclonidine was observed in nine (13.8%) and 13 (20.3%) patients, respectively. Overall, therapy was discontinued owing to ocular or nonocular side effects with 0.5% and 1.0% apraclonidine in 14 (21.5%) and 16 (25%) patients, respectively.

Conclusions:  We believe that 0.5% apraclonidine is equally effective as 1.0% apraclonidine when used twice daily as the first adjunctive drug to timolol. The drug effect is maintained for at least 90 days.