We examined the impact of the "effectiveness initiative" and medical practice guidelines on the practice of ophthalmology. The effectiveness initiative asserts that much of current medical practice is unnecessary or harmful, too costly, and unresponsive to patient desires. It promotes more critical review of the medical literature, research on outcomes, and stringent practice guidelines. Whereas current practice guidelines are helpful in codifying accepted procedures, they tend to sanction interventions of unproved value. Future guidelines will probably reject unproved interventions, especially if they are expensive. Although such guidelines may limit physicians' freedom of choice, they may protect them against capricious malpractice claims and unreasonable patient expectations.
Trobe JD, Fendrick AM. The Effectiveness InitiativeI. Medical Practice Guidelines. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113(6):715–717. doi:10.1001/archopht.1995.01100060039027