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July 1995

The Effectiveness Initiative: II: The Spectrum of Effectiveness Research

Author Affiliations

From the Division of General Medicine, School of Medicine and Department of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Dr Fendrick); Clifford S. Goodman and Associates, Washington, DC (Dr Goodman); and the W. K. Kellogg Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan (Dr Trobe).

Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113(7):862-865. doi:10.1001/archopht.1995.01100070036021

Effectiveness making more on rigorous evidence than on intuition and anecdote. The methods used to generate new data include, in order of decreasing rigor, clinical trials, observational studies, claims data analysis, and anecdotal studies. The methods that synthesize existing data include unstructured literature reviews, consensus development, meta-analysis, and decision modeling. Cost minimization, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefit analyses are formal methods of incorporating the economic impact of alternative medical interventions.

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