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March 1996

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Conjunctiva and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(3):349. doi:10.1001/archopht.1996.01100130345024

Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection infrequently.1,2 Although uncommonly reported, the association between HIV infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva seems plausible because of the potential causative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of conjunctival epithelial dysplasia in persons who are immunocompetent. Most HIVinfected, immunosuppressed patients are known to be at high risk for several types of HPV-related neoplasia, particularly anogenital neoplasia. Further support for the association between conjunctival HPVrelated neoplasia and HIV infection comes from an epidemiologic study conducted in Rwanda.3 This casecontrolled study showed that the odds ratio for conjunctiva intraepithelial dysplasia and seropositivity for HIV was increased significantly compared with controls (odds ratio, 13; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 76.9).3 We had the opportunity to investigate the possible association of HPV in a squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva from a

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