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July 1996

Occurrence of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis After Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunosuppression

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health (Drs Hoover and Saah and Ms Peng), and Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine (Dr Semba), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md; the Department of Epidemiology, Schools of Public Health and Medicine, University of California—Los Angeles (Dr Detels); the Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh (Pa) (Dr Rinaldo); and the Howard Brown Memorial Clinic and Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill (Dr Phair).

Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(7):821-827. doi:10.1001/archopht.1996.01100140035004

Objective:  To estimate the incidence and prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV-R) in late-stage human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease.

Design:  Cohort study.

Setting:  The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, an ongoing 10-year study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected homosexual men with semiannual visits and CD4+ cell testing.

Study Participants:  Three hundred sixty-seven human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who were receiving zidovudine and Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis and who had CD4+ cell counts fall below 0.10×109/L(100/μL).

Main Outcome Measures:  Kaplan-Meier—type estimates for various longitudinal quantifications of incidence and prevalence of CMV-R were obtained.

Results:  Among these 367 individuals, cytomegalovirus disease developed in 103, of whom 73 (71%) had ocular complications. At 4 years after the first CD4 cell count (<0.1 10×109/L), the probability for these subjects to have (1) remained living without CMV-R was 11%, (2) died without experiencing CMV-R was 66%, (3) experienced CMV-R and be living was 6%, and (4) experienced CMV-R and died was 18%. During these 4 years, there was a 25% chance for the development of CMV-R and, on average, 0.211 person-years of CMV-R morbidity. Among those subjects in whom CMV-R developed, about 19% did have CMV-R before a CD4+ cell count of less than 0.05 ×109/L (<50/μL) was observed, and 81% had CMV-R after the CD4+ cell count reached this threshold.

Conclusion:  These estimates may be relevant to current clinical practice and help in allocating resources and planning for treatment and prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus disease.

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